OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and outcomes of pregnancy in women with Turner Syndrome.
DESIGN: Retrospective 20-year cohort study (2000-2020).
SETTING: 16 tertiary referral maternity units in the UK.
POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 81 women with Turner syndrome who became pregnant METHODS: Retrospective chart analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mode of conception, pregnancy outcomes RESULTS: We obtained data on 127 pregnancies in 81 women with a Turner phenotype. All non-spontaneous pregnancies (54/127 (42.5%)) were by egg donation. Only 9/31 (29%) of pregnancies in women with karyotype 45,X were spontaneous, compared with 53/66 (80.3%) with mosaic karyotype 45,X/46,XX (p<0.0001). Women with mosaic 45,X/46,XX were younger at first pregnancy by 5.5-8.5 years compared to other TS-karyotype groups (p<0.001), and more likely to have a spontaneous menarche (75.8% vs 50% or less, p=0.008). There were 17 miscarriages, 3 terminations of pregnancy, 2 stillbirths and 105 livebirths. Two women had aortic dissection (2.5%); both were 45,X karyotype, with bicuspid aortic valves and ovum donation pregnancies, one died. Another woman had an aortic root replacement within six months of delivery. 10/106 (9.4%) births with gestational age data were preterm and 22/96 (22.9%) with singleton birthweight/gestational age data weighed <10th centile. The caesarean section rate was 72/107 (67.3%). In only 73/127 (57.4%) of pregnancies was there documentation of cardiovascular imaging within 24 months prior to conceiving.
CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy in women with TS is associated with major maternal cardiovascular risks and deserve thorough cardiovascular assessment and counselling prior to assisted or spontaneous pregnancy managed by a specialist team.
|Journal||BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology|
|Early online date||20 Nov 2021|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 20 Nov 2021|
- aortic dissection
- Turner syndrome