Practice makes efficient: Cortical alpha oscillations mediate improved golf putting performance

Germano Gallicchio, Andrew Cooke, Christopher Ring

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
189 Downloads (Pure)


Practice of a motor skill results in improved performance and decreased movement awareness. The psychomotor efficiency hypothesis proposes that the development of motor expertise through practice is accompanied by physiological refinements whereby irrelevant processes are suppressed and relevant processes are enhanced. The present study employed a test–retest design to evaluate the presence of greater neurophysiological efficiency with practice and mediation analyses to identify the factors accounting for performance improvements, in a golf putting task. Putting performance, movement-specific conscious processing, electroencephalographic alpha power and alpha connectivity were measured from 12 right-handed recreational golfers (age: M = 21 years; handicap: M = 23) before and after 3 practice sessions. As expected, performance improved and conscious processing decreased with training. Mediation analyses revealed that improvements in performance were partly attributable to increased regional gating of alpha power and reduced cross-regional alpha connectivity. However, changes in conscious processing were not associated with performance improvements. Increased efficiency was manifested at the neurophysiological level as selective inhibition and functional isolation of task-irrelevant cortical regions (temporal regions) and concomitant functional activation of task-relevant regions (central regions). These findings provide preliminary evidence for the development of greater psychomotor efficiency with practice in a precision aiming task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-102
JournalSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
Issue number1
Early online date28 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017


  • alpha oscillations
  • EEG
  • golf putting
  • practice
  • psychomotor efficiency


Dive into the research topics of 'Practice makes efficient: Cortical alpha oscillations mediate improved golf putting performance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this