Potential countersample materials for in vitro simulation wear testing

Adrian Shortall, Xiaoqiang Hu, Peter Marquis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: Any laboratory investigation of the wear resistance of dental materials needs to consider oral conditions so that in vitro wear results can be correlated with in vivo findings. The choice of the countersample is a critical factor in establishing the pattern of tribological wear and in achieving an efficient in vitro wear testing system. This research investigated the wear behavior and surface characteristics associated with three candidate countersample materials used for in vitro wear testing in order to identify a possible suitable substitute for human dental enamel. METHODS: Three candidate materials, stainless steel, steatite and dental porcelain were evaluated and compared to human enamel. A variety of factors including hardness, wear surface evolution and frictional coefficients were considered, relative to the tribology of the in vivo situation. RESULTS: The results suggested that the dental porcelain investigated bore the closest similarity to human enamel of the materials investigated. SIGNIFICANCE: Assessment of potential countersample materials should be based on the essential tribological simulation supported by investigations of mechanical, chemical and structural properties. The selected dental porcelain had the best simulating ability among the three selected countersample materials and this class of material may be considered as a possible countersample material for in vitro wear test purposes. Further studies are required, employing a wider range of dental ceramics, in order to optimise the choice of countersample material for standardized in vitro wear testing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-54
Number of pages9
JournalDental Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2002


  • countersample
  • human enamel
  • dental porcelain
  • dental material
  • steatite
  • wear testing
  • stainless steel


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