Porosity, cracks, and mechanical properties of additively manufactured tooling alloys: a review

Prveen Bidare, Amaia Jiménez, Hany Hassanin, Khamis Essa

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Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are currently employed for the manufacturing of completely functional parts and have gained the attention of high-technology industries such as the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical fields. This is mainly due to their advantages in terms of low material waste and high productivity, particularly owing to the flexibility in the geometries that can be generated. In the tooling industry, specifically the manufacturing of dies and molds, AM technologies enable the generation of complex shapes, internal cooling channels, the repair of damaged dies and molds, and an improved performance of dies and molds employing multiple AM materials. In the present paper, a review of AM processes and materials applied in the tooling industry for the generation of dies and molds is addressed. AM technologies used for tooling applications and the characteristics of the materials employed in this industry are first presented. In addition, the most relevant state-of-the-art approaches are analyzed with respect to the process parameters and microstructural and mechanical properties in the processing of high-performance tooling materials used in AM processes. Concretely, studies on the additive manufacturing of ferrous (maraging steels and H13 steel alloy) and non-ferrous (Stellite alloys and WC alloys) tooling alloys are also analyzed.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages30
JournalAdvances in Manufacturing
Early online date16 Sept 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • Hybrid manufacturing
  • Post processing
  • Super alloys
  • Tooling alloys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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