Platelet-inspired nanomedicine in hemostasis thrombosis and thromboinflammation

Shruti Raghunathan, Julie Rayes, Anirban Sen Gupta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

86 Downloads (Pure)


Platelets are anucleate cell-fragments derived predominantly from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and released in the blood circulation, with a normal count of 150 000–40 000 per μl and a lifespan of approximately 10 days in humans. A primary role of platelets is to aid in vascular injury site-specific clot formation to stanch bleeding, termed hemostasis. Platelets render hemostasis by a complex concert of mechanisms involving platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation, coagulation amplification, and clot retraction. Additionally, platelet secretome can influence coagulation kinetics and clot morphology. Therefore, platelet defects and dysfunctions result in bleeding complications. Current treatment for such complications involve prophylactic or emergency transfusion of platelets. However, platelet transfusion logistics constantly suffer from limited donor availability, challenges in portability and storage, high bacterial contamination risks, and very short shelf life (~5 days). To address these issues, an exciting area of research is focusing on the development of microparticle- and nanoparticle-based platelet surrogate technologies that can mimic various hemostatic mechanisms of platelets. On the other hand, aberrant occurrence of the platelet mechanisms lead to the pathological manifestation of thrombosis and thromboinflammation. The treatments for this are focused on inhibiting the mechanisms or resolving the formed clots. Here, platelet-inspired technologies can provide unique platforms for disease-targeted drug delivery to achieve high therapeutic efficacy while avoiding systemic side-effects. This review will provide brief mechanistic insight into the role of platelets in hemostasis, thrombosis and thromboinflammation, and present the current state-of-art in the design of platelet-inspired nanomedicine for applications in these areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1535-1549
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number7
Early online date18 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A.S.G. acknowledges funding support from National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL121212, R01 HL137695, R01 HL141080). J.R. acknowledges funding support from British Heart Foundation Intermediate Fellowship (FS/IBSRF/20/25039).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.


  • haemostasis
  • nanomedicine
  • platelets
  • thromboinflammation
  • thrombosis
  • Hemostasis
  • Thromboinflammation
  • Humans
  • Blood Platelets
  • Inflammation/complications
  • Nanomedicine
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


Dive into the research topics of 'Platelet-inspired nanomedicine in hemostasis thrombosis and thromboinflammation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this