Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of a continuous process (scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) and pin stirrer (PS)) on the physical and material properties of an emulsion-based lipstick by altering the processing conditions of both the SSHE and PS.
Emulsion formation was achieved using a SSHE and PS. Emulsions were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance restricted diffusion (droplet size), texture analysis and rheology (mechanical properties).
Results showed that a higher impeller rotational velocity (IRV) (1500 r.p.m.) and a lower exit temperature (52°C) produce the smallest droplets (~ 4 μm), due to greater disruptive forces and a higher viscosity of the continuous phase. The addition of a PS reduces the droplet size (14-6 μm) if the SSHE has a low IRV (500 r.p.m.), due to greater droplet disruption as the emulsion passes through the PS unit. Results also show that if the jacket temperature of a SSHE is 65°C, so that crystallization occurs in both process and post-production, droplets can be integrated into the network resulting in a stiffer wax network (G' - 0.12, in comparison to 0.02 MPa). This is due to small crystals creating a shell around water droplets which can form connections with the continuous network forming a structured network. The addition of a pin stirrer can disrupt a formed network reducing the stiffness of the emulsion (0.3-0.05 MPa).
This work suggests the potential use of a continuous process in producing an emulsion-based lipstick, particularly when wax crystals are produced in the process. Future work should consider the moisturizing or lubricating properties of wax continuous emulsions and the release of hydrophilic compounds from the aqueous phase.
- continuous process
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry
- Drug Discovery
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)