Peridynamic modeling of rail squats

Andris Freimanis, Sakdirat Kaewunruen, Makoto Ishida

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)
150 Downloads (Pure)


Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as ‘squats’ when they were initiated from damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as ‘studs’ when they were associated with white etching layer caused by the transform from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defect induces wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both of curve and tangent track geometries have been observed, and squat growth has also been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights peridynamic modeling of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been measured in the field using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each grid node form a three dimensional contour of rail squat crack. The crack propagation of squats/studs is modelled using peridynamics. The modeling and field data is compared to evaluate the effectiveness of peridynamics in modelling rail squats.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSustainable Solutions for Railways and Transportation Engineering
EditorsSherif El-Badawy, Jan Valentin
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-01911-2
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-01910-5
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2018
Event2nd GeoMEast International Congress and Exhibition on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, Egypt 2018: The Official International Congress of the Soil-Structure Interaction Group in Egypt (SSIGE) - Cairo, Egypt
Duration: 24 Nov 201828 Nov 2018

Publication series

NameSustainable Civil Infrastructure


Conference2nd GeoMEast International Congress and Exhibition on Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, Egypt 2018


  • peridynamics
  • modelling
  • rail squats
  • rail surface defect
  • rail defects


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