Pattern, management and outcome of cervical spine injuries associated with head injuries in paediatric patients.

CO Oluigbo, YC Gan, Spyridon Sgouros, S Chapman, A Kay, Guirish Solanki, Anthony Walsh, AD Hockley

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6 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION This study examines the management and outcome of cervical spine injuries in children with head injuries, to assess the need for surgical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed a retrospective analysis (1995-2005) of 445 children admitted intubated and ventilated to the intensive care unit with head injuries. Outcome measures: Frankel grade for spinal injuries and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) for head injuries. RESULTS Cervical spine injuries were detected in 11 patients (incidence 2.5%, mean age: 6.3 years, range: 21 months-15 years). The injuries were: C1/2 distraction: 2; C1/2 subluxation: 2; odontoid peg fracture with C1/2 dislocation and cord transection: 1; disruption of posterior longitudinal ligament at C2: 1; odontoid peg fracture with C2/3 distraction: 1; C2/3 subluxation: 1; C3 lamina fracture: 1; C3/4 facet fracture: 1; C6/7 fracture dislocation with cord transection: 1. One patient was managed operatively, ten patients nonoperatively, two with halo vests and eight with hard collars. There were three deaths (mortality 27%) associated with severe head injuries. At 6 months follow-up, two patients remained quadriplegic (Frankel Grade A), one of them ventilator dependent, one had residual motor function but of no practical use (Frankel Grade C), five had good spinal outcome (Frankel Grade E). Seven patients had good head injury outcomes (GOS 5), one remained disabled (GOS 3). CONCLUSION Most children with cervical injury can be managed nonoperatively with good outcomes. Surgical management may be necessary in severe unstable injuries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-92
Number of pages6
JournalChild's Nervous System
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008


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