Optimising Surface Roughness and Density in Titanium Fabrication via Laser Powder Bed Fusion

Hany Hassanin*, Mahmoud El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmadein, Naser A. Alsaleh, Sabbah Ataya, Mohamed M. Z. Ahmed , Khamis Essa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The Ti6Al4V alloy has many advantages, such as being lightweight, formal, and resistant to corrosion. This makes it highly desirable for various applications, especially in the aerospace industry. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a technique that allows for the production of detailed and unique parts with great flexibility in design. However, there are challenges when it comes to achieving high-quality surfaces and porosity formation in the material, which limits the wider use of LPBF. To tackle these challenges, this study uses statistical techniques called Design of Experiments (DoE) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to investigate and optimise the process parameters of LPBF for making Ti6Al4V components with improved density and surface finish. The parameters examined in this study are laser power, laser scan speed, and hatch space. The optimisation study results show that using specific laser settings, like a laser power of 175 W, a laser scan speed of 1914 mm/s, and a hatch space of 53 μm, produces Ti6Al4V parts with a high relative density of 99.54% and low top and side surface roughness of 2.6 μm and 4.3 μm, respectively. This promising outcome demonstrates the practicality of optimising Ti6Al4V and other metal materials for a wide range of applications, thereby overcoming existing limitations and further expanding the potential of LPBF while minimising inherent process issues.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1642
Number of pages20
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 20 Aug 2023


  • laser powder bed fusion
  • design of experiments
  • Ti6Al4V
  • process parameters


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