On the theories of type 1 polar stratospheric cloud formation

A. R. Mackenzie, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, T. Vesala

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59 Citations (Scopus)


Several mechanisms for the production of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles are investigated using the classical theories of nucleation and freezing and the multicomponent condensation theory. We conclude that the most likely route to type 1 PSC particles is via condensational growth of ternary solution droplets followed by rapid freezing to NAT, SAT, and water ice at temperatures near the ice frost point. The particles formed are then stable and can reduce nitric acid vapor pressures to the saturation vapor pressure over NAT at all temperatures below the NAT point. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Issue numberD6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Oceanography
  • Forestry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Palaeontology


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