On the solubility and stability of polyvinylidene fluoride

Jean Marshall, Anna Zhenova, Samuel Roberts, Tabitha Petchey, Pengcheng Zhu, Claire Dancer, Con R. McElroy, Emma Kendrick, Vannessa Goodship

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This literature review covers the solubility and processability of fluoropolymer polyvinyli-dine fluoride (PVDF). Fluoropolymers consist of a carbon backbone chain with multiple connected C–F bonds; they are typically nonreactive and nontoxic and have good thermal stability. Their processing, recycling and reuse are rapidly becoming more important to the circular economy as fluoropolymers find widespread application in diverse sectors including construction, automotive engineering and electronics. The partially fluorinated polymer PVDF is in strong demand in all of these areas; in addition to its desirable inertness, which is typical of most fluoropolymers, it also has a high dielectric constant and can be ferroelectric in some of its crystal phases. However, processing and reusing PVDF is a challenging task, and this is partly due to its limited solubility. This review begins with a discussion on the useful properties and applications of PVDF, followed by a discussion on the known solvents and diluents of PVDF and how it can be formed into membranes. Finally, we explore the limitations of PVDF’s chemical and thermal stability, with a discussion on conditions under which it can degrade. Our aim is to provide a condensed overview that will be of use to both chemists and engineers who need to work with PVDF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1354
Number of pages31
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was financially supported by Innovate UK (Faraday Battery Challenge Pro-gramme) through the MoSESS (Multi optimal Solutions for Energy Storage Systems) project (number 104426) led by McLaren Automotive and R2LIB (Reclamation and Re-manufacture of lithium ion batteries) project (number 104425). This work was also partially funded from a feasibility award from CENTS, the EPSRC-funded Circular Economy Network+ in Transportation Systems (EP/S036237/1), project ?SMART and Sustainable Coatings?. SR acknowledges EPSRC for a Doctoral Training Partnership Award (EP/N509796/1) for his PhD at the University of Warwick.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Circular economy
  • Green chemistry
  • Polymer processing
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics


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