BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that olfactory identification (OI) deficits are a promising premorbid marker of transition from ultra-high risk (UHR) to schizophrenia, but not to psychotic illness more generally. Whether this remains the case at longer follow-up, and whether there is decline in OI ability are unclear.
METHOD: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 81 participants at baseline (identification of risk for psychosis) and 254 individuals at follow-up. Forty-nine participants underwent UPSIT assessment at both time points. UPSIT scores were investigated at an average of 7.08years after identification of risk in relation to transition to psychosis, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and psychosocial/functional outcome.
RESULTS: UPSIT scores at baseline and follow-up did not differ between participants who transitioned to psychosis and those who did not. Similarly, there were no significant differences on UPSIT scores at baseline or follow-up between individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and transitioned individuals without schizophrenia. Those with a poor functional outcome showed significantly lower baseline UPSIT scores than participants with good outcome. There was no significant association between functional outcome and follow-up UPSIT scores. There were no significant changes in UPSIT over time for any group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that impaired OI is not a good marker of the onset of psychosis and schizophrenia, but may differentiate UHR individuals who experience a poor functional outcome, regardless of transition status.
|Number of pages||7|
|Early online date||1 Dec 2014|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2015|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Olfactory identification
- Ultra-high risk
- Orbitofrontal cortex