Ocular manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus

Ramesh Sivaraj, OM Durrani, Alastair Denniston, Philip Murray, Caroline Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

118 Citations (Scopus)


Ocular manifestations of lupus are fairly common, may be the presenting feature of the disease and can be sight-threatening. Almost any part of the eye and visual pathway can be affected by inflammatory or thrombotic processes. Ocular pain and visual impairment require urgent assessment by an ophthalmologist. Infection should be excluded. Optic neuritis and ischaemic optic neuropathy may be difficult to distinguish. Scleritis and severe retinopathy require systemic immunosuppression but episcleritis, anterior uveitis and dry eyes can usually be managed with local eye drops. Vaso-occlusive disease, particularly in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, requires treatment with anticoagulation and proliferative retinopathy is treated with laser therapy. Hydroxychloroquine rarely causes ocular toxicity at doses under 6.5 mg/kg/day. When this has occurred, it has been associated with more than 5 years of drug exposure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1757-62
Number of pages6
Issue number12
Early online date5 Aug 2007
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2007


  • ophthalmic
  • corneal
  • scleral
  • retinal
  • lupus
  • ocular
  • optic


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