Kidney transplantation is the preferred modality of renal replacement therapy. Long-term patient and graft survival have only improved marginally over the recent decade, mainly because of the development of cardiovascular disease after transplantation. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is common before and after transplantation. This article reviews the literature assessing the role of pre- and post-transplant obesity on patient and graft survival, discusses the underlying obesity-related mechanisms leading to inferior kidney transplant outcomes, and explores the role of nutritional intervention on improving long-term outcomes of transplantation. Although the role of pretransplant obesity remains uncertain, post-transplant obesity increases the risk of graft failure and mortality. Nutritional intervention is effective in achieving post-transplant weight loss, but the effect on long-term outcomes has not been established. Future research should focus on conducting nutritional intervention studies aiming to improve long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation.