Numerical investigation on flashing jet behaviors of single-hole GDI injector

Hengjie Guo, Yanfei Li*, Bo Wang, Huiqiang Zhang, Hongming Xu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, n-hexane flashing jets discharged from a single-hole gasoline direct injector (GDI) were studied numerically with the adoption of diffuse Eulerian framework and the homogeneous relaxation model (HRM). The fuel temperature ranged from 30 to 130 °C, and the ambient pressure varied from 20 to 101 kPa. The results showed that considerable vaporization started at the counter bore and a liquid core existed near the nozzle exit. Due to drastic vaporization, the pressure within the liquid core increased so the two-phase flow became under-expanded. Violent expansion then occurred and a low-pressure region was formed, which is believed as the origin of the spray collapse under flashing conditions for multi-hole GDI injectors. At high superheat levels, shock wave structures similar to those in highly under-expanded gaseous jets were identified. However, the transonic position located at some distances from the nozzle rather than at the throttle. Besides, vapor fraction played the dominant role in the onset of expansion, while the expansion was ended by the pressure difference between the two sides of the Mach disk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-59
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Early online date24 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • Flash boiling
  • Low-pressure core
  • Shock wave
  • Spray collapse
  • Under-expanded jet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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