## Abstract

In [6] the first author proved that for any β ∈ (1, βKL) every x ∈ (0, 1/(β − 1)) has a simply normal β-expansion, where βKL ≈ 1.78723 is the Komornik–Loreti constant. This result is complemented by an observation made in [22], where it was shown that whenever β ∈ (βT, 2] there exists an x ∈ (0, 1/(β − 1)) with a unique β-expansion, and this expansion is not simply normal. Here βT ≈ 1.80194 is the unique zero in (1, 2] of the polynomial x3 − x2 − 2x + 1. This leaves a gap in our understanding within the interval [βKL, βT]. In this paper we fill this gap and prove that for any β ∈ (1, βT], every x ∈ (0, 1/(β − 1)) has a simply normal β-expansion. For completion, we provide a proof that for any β ∈ (1, 2), Lebesgue almost every x has a simply normal β-expansion. We also give examples of x with multiple β-expansions, none of which are simply normal.

Our proofs rely on ideas from combinatorics on words and dynamical systems.

Our proofs rely on ideas from combinatorics on words and dynamical systems.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 171-192 |

Journal | Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society |

Volume | 167 |

Issue number | 1 |

Early online date | 26 Apr 2018 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Jul 2019 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Mathematics(all)