Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour

A Covaci, Stuart Harrad, MAE Abdallah, N Ali, RJ Law, D Herzke, CA de Wit

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    954 Citations (Scopus)


    This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and bans on the use of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, in many jurisdictions, have created a market for the use of NBFRs. To date, most data on NBFRs have arisen as additional information generated by research designed principally to study more "traditional" BFRs, such as PBDEs. This has led to a wide variety of analytical approaches for sample extraction, extract purification and instrumental analysis of NBFRs. An overview of environmental occurrence in abiotic matrices, aquatic biota, terrestrial biota and birds is presented. Evidence concerning the metabolism and absorption of different NBFRs is reviewed. Human exposure to NBFRs via different exposure pathways is discussed, and research gaps related to analysis, environmental sources, fate, and behaviour and human exposure are identified. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)532-556
    Number of pages25
    JournalEnvironment International
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2011


    • Analysis
    • Novel BFRs
    • Brominated flame retardants
    • Review
    • Human exposure
    • Environmental occurrence


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