This paper investigates the behaviour of a non-spherical cavitation bubble in an acoustic standing wave. The study has important applications to sonochemistry and in understanding features of therapeutic ultrasound in the megahertz range, extending our understanding of bubble behaviour in the highly nonlinear regime where jet and toroidal bubble formation may be important. The theory developed herein represents a further development of the material presented in Part 1 of this paper (Wang & Blake, J. Fluid Mech. vol. 659, 2010, pp. 191–224) to a standing wave, including repeated topological changes from a singly to a multiply connected bubble. The fluid mechanics is assumed to be compressible potential flow. Matched asymptotic expansions for an inner and outer flow are performed to second order in terms of a small parameter, the bubble-wall Mach number, leading to weakly compressible flow formulation of the problem. The method allows the development of a computational model for non-spherical bubbles by using a modified boundary-integral method. The computations show that the bubble remains approximately of a spherical shape when the acoustic pressure is small or is initiated at the node or antinode of the acoustic pressure field. When initiated between the node and antinode at higher acoustic pressures, the bubble loses its spherical shape at the end of the collapse phase after only a few oscillations. A high-speed liquid bubble jet forms and is directed towards the node, impacting the opposite bubble surface and penetrating through the bubble to form a toroidal bubble. The bubble first rebounds in a toroidal form but re-combines to a singly connected bubble, expanding continuously and gradually returning to a near spherical shape. These processes are repeated in the next oscillation.
|Number of pages||23|
|Journal||Journal of Fluid Mechanics|
|Early online date||24 May 2011|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2011|