Non-invasive Instrument-based Tests for Quantifying Anterior Chamber Flare in Uveitis: A Systematic Review

Xiaoxuan Liu, Thomas W McNally, Sophie Beese, Laura E Downie, Ameenat L Solebo, Livia Faes, Syed Husain, Pearse A Keane, David Moore, Alastair Denniston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Anterior chamber (AC) flare is a key sign for anterior uveitis. New instrument-based techniques for measuring AC flare can offer automation and objectivity. This review aims to identify objective instrument-based measures of AC flare.
Methods: In this systematic review, we identified studies reporting correlation between instrument-based tests versus clinician AC flare grading, and/or aqueous protein concentration, as well as test reliability.
Results: Four index tests were identified in 11 studies: laser-flare photometry (LFP), optical coherence tomography, ocular flare analysis meter (OFAM) and the double-pass technique. The correlation between LFP and clinician grading and protein concentration was 0.40-0.93 and 0.87-0.94, respectively. The double-pass technique showed no correlation with clinician grading and insufficient information was available for OFAM.
Conclusion: LFP shows moderate to strong correlation with clinician grading and aqueous protein concentration. LFP could be a superior reference test compared to clinician AC flare grading for validating new index tests.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOcular immunology and inflammation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 23 Dec 2019


  • Systematic review
  • uveitis
  • anterior chamber flare
  • aqueous humor
  • aqueous humour
  • Tyndall effect
  • diagnostic test
  • aqueous protein concentration
  • optical coherence tomography
  • laser flare photometry


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