Non-chemically modified waxy rice starch stabilised wow emulsions for salt reduction

Miroslaw M. Kasprzak, Peter Wilde, Sandra E. Hill, Stephen E. Harding, Rebecca L Ford, Bettina Wolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
181 Downloads (Pure)


Water-in-oil-in-water emulsions containing an internalised salt solution were stabilised with non-chemically modified waxy rice starch (WRS), and octinyl succinic anhydride (OSA) as reference, to release salt during oral processing due to amylase-induced destabilisation. Salt levels were 1.5 g salt and 0.47 g salt per 100 g external and internal aqueous phases, respectively. Variables were the starch content (2, 3, 4 g per 100 g emulsion; 20 g oil per 100 g emulsion), level of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as a lipophilic emulsifier (0.29, 0.57 g per 100 g emulsion) and ambient-pressure processing temperature for WRS gelatinisation, the non-chemical modification process, (75 ± 3, 88 ± 5 °C). OSA starch was used under previously applied conditions (2, 3, 4 g starch, 0.57 g PGPR per 100 g emulsion, 25 ± 5 °C). Emulsions were stable for three months, except OSA and lower level PGPR low temperature processed WRS emulsions lost salt into the external emulsion phase. One day after processing, encapsulation efficiency (EE) was as predicted from the composition for OSA emulsions, while at the same PGPR content an external aqueous phase was incorporated into the oil droplets of the WRS emulsion increasing EE. Salt release was assessed in vitro and through sensory evaluation using paired comparison testing. The results revealed that the efficacy of this salt reduction approach was enhanced for gelatinised WRS compared to OSA starch stabilised emulsions. Consumer tests on a tomato soup, to validate this salt reduction approach for a real food, revealed a possible 25% salt reduction, compared to current UK products.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4242-4255
Number of pages14
JournalFood & Function
Issue number7
Early online date14 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-chemically modified waxy rice starch stabilised wow emulsions for salt reduction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this