New, rapid method to measure dissolved silver concentration in silver nanoparticle suspensions by aggregation combined with centrifugation

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Abstract

It is unclear whether the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are exclusively mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag(+)) or, instead, are due to combined nanoparticle and silver ion effects. Therefore, it is essential to quantify dissolved Ag in nanosilver suspensions for investigations of nanoparticle toxicity. We developed a method to measure dissolved Ag in Ag(+)/AgNPs mixtures by combining aggregation of AgNPs with centrifugation. We also describe the reproducible synthesis of stable, uncoated AgNPs. Uncoated AgNPs were quickly aggregated by 2 mM Ca(2+), forming large clusters that could be sedimented in a low-speed centrifuge. At 20,100g, the sedimentation time of AgNPs was markedly reduced to 30 min due to Ca(2+)-mediated aggregation, confirmed by the measurements of Ag content in supernatants with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. No AgNPs were detected in the supernatant by UV-Vis absorption spectra after centrifuging the aggregates. Our approach provides a convenient and inexpensive way to separate dissolved Ag from AgNPs, avoiding long ultracentrifugation times or Ag(+) adsorption to ultrafiltration membranes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number259
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume18
Issue number9
Early online date29 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2016

Keywords

  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Sedimentation
  • Aggregation
  • Separation
  • Centrifugation
  • Nanotoxicology
  • Environmental and health effects

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