Evidence indicates that dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) secrete neurotrophic factors which play an important role in neurogenesis, neural maintenance and repair. In this study we investigated the trophic potential of DPSC-derived conditioned medium (CM) to protect and regenerate isolated primary trigeminal ganglion neuronal cells (TGNC). DPSC and TGNC were harvested by enzymatic digestion from Wister-Hann rats. CM was collected from 72 h serum-free DPSC cultures and neurotrophic factors; nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were analysed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Primary co-cultures of DPSC and TGNC were established to evaluate the paracrine effects of DPSC. In comparison, NGF was used to evaluate its neurotrophic and neuritogenic effect on TGNC. Immunocytochemistry was performed to detect the neuronal-markers; neuronal nuclei (NeuN), microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and βIII-tubulin. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyse neuronal-associated gene expression of NeuN, MAP-2, βIII-tubulin in addition to growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), Synapsin-I and thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 (TRPV1). DPSC-CM contained significant levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and GDNF. DPSC and DPSC-CM significantly enhanced TGNC survival with extensive neurite outgrowth and branching as evaluated by immunocytochemistry of neuronal markers. DPSC-CM was more effective in stimulating TGNC survival than co-cultures or NGF treated culture. In comparison to controls, DPSC-CM significantly upregulated gene expression of several neuronal markers as well as TRPV1. This study demonstrated that DPSC-derived factors promoted survival and regeneration of isolated TGNC and may be considered as cell-free therapy for TG nerve repair.