Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening fungal disease affecting both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. The main causative agent of CM is Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycete fungus prevalent in the environment. Our understanding of the immune mechanisms controlling C. neoformans growth within the central nervous system (CNS) is poor. However, there have been several recent advances in the field of neuroimmunology regarding how cells resident within the CNS, such as microglia and neurons, can participate in immune surveillance and control of infection. In this mini-review, the cells of the CNS are discussed with reference to what is currently known about how they control C. neoformans infection.