Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) offer opportunities in terms of low-cost and highly abundant materials. For extending the lifetime of the batteries in addition to high energy and power, the electrodes and their components are often engineered into composites that contain a variety of nanoparticles and pores. These nano-enabled materials and electrode design stabilize the structural and electrochemical energy storage activity of Na-ion cells by shortening the diffusion length, improving electrical contacts, and providing a mechanical buffer to compensate for the volume change during sodiation and desodation. In this chapter, we have evaluated NIBs sustainability and nanostructuring of active materials. Although there are certain advantages and drawbacks to using nanomaterials in energy storage systems, we have looked at the benefits provided by nanostructured materials, electrode designs, and the prospect for further development of enhanced NIBs.