Modelling temperature distributions in cooling chocolate moulds

H. Tewkesbury, A. G.F. Stapley, P. J. Fryer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


The moulding of chocolate is technically challenging, and is dependent on the solidification of the constituent cocoa fats into the correct polymorphic form (Form V). This gives a product which is attractive to the consumer as well as possessing good demoulding and bloom resistance properties. Form V is produced following a tempering process involving a complex temperature profile in which seed crystals are produced. However, other polymorphs can nucleate and grow during moulding if the cooling rate is excessive. A computational model has thus been developed to predict the temperature in the mould as a function of space and time. The model uses enthalpy-temperature data obtained over a range of cooling rates. It has been validated using thermocouple data taken from a model mould during air cooling over commercially relevant conditions. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3123-3132
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2000


  • Crystallisation
  • Finite element
  • Food processing
  • Heat conduction
  • Heat transfer
  • Mathematical modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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