Microscopic investigation of near-field spray characteristics of 2-methylfuran, ethanol and isooctane under flash boiling conditions

Bo Wang, Ziman Wang, Xiuchao Bao, Yanfei Li, Yizhou Jiang, Hongming Xu*, Xinyu Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in the control of combustion quality in direct-injection engines. In the present work, the near-field spray patterns of 2-methylfuran (MF), ethanol (ETH) and isooctane (ISO) under non-flash boiling and flash boiling conditions were investigated using an ultra-highspeed imaging technique. Fuel was injected from a single-hole solenoid injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at the injection pressure of 40 MPa. Various conditions were tested, ranging from non-flash boiling conditions (ambient) to flare-flash boiling conditions with fuel temperatures of 20 °C and 80 °C and different back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using a long-distance microscope coupled with an ultra-highspeed camera (1 million fps). Results showed that under flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns changed significantly and clear radial expansion was observed due to bubble formation and explosion. Among the three fuels, MF showed the most intense flash boiling behavior due to it having the highest vapor pressure. The effects of different non-dimensional numbers were also considered and it was found that saturation ratio and cavitation number were the two main governing factors for the near-nozzle spray behaviors. During the end of the injection process, the low effective pressure led to poorly atomized spray with a compact liquid column and large ligaments; this could result in poor air/fuel mixing and thus higher HC and particle emissions. Significant improvements were observed at Rs = 0.2 where flash boiling greatly promoted the spray atomization, even with low fuel velocity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)142-152
Number of pages11
Early online date15 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • 2-Methylfuran
  • Flash boiling
  • Near-field
  • Primary break-up

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry


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