Methods in Raman spectroscopy for saliva studies – a review

Mike Hardy, Liam Kelleher, Paulo de Carvalho Gomes, Emma Buchan, Hin On Martin Chu, Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer

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The use of Raman spectroscopy combined with saliva is an exciting emerging spectroscopy-biofluid combination. In this review, we summarize current methods employed in such studies, in particular the collection, pretreatment, and storage of saliva, as well as measurement procedures and Raman parameters used. Given the need for sensitive detection, surface-enhanced Raman methods are also surveyed, alongside chemometric techniques. A meta-analysis of variables is compiled. We observe a wide range of approaches and conclude that standardization of methods and progress to more extensive validation Raman-saliva studies is necessary. Nevertheless, the studies show tremendous promise toward the improvement of speed, diagnostic accuracy, and portable device possibilities in applications such as healthcare, law enforcement, and forensics.

Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We acknowledge funding from the Wellcome Trust (174ISSFPP), the Royal Academy of Engineering (RF1415\14\28), the Defence Science and Technology Laboratories (DSTLX-1000098511) and the EPSRC (EP/V029983/1). P.G.O. is a Royal Academy of Engineering Research (RAEng) Fellowship holder.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Raman spectroscopy
  • SERS
  • drugs
  • medical diagnostics
  • saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Spectroscopy


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