Method Effects: The Problem With Negatively Versus Positively Keyed Items

M Lindwall, V Barkoukis, C Grano, F Lucidi, L Raudsepp, J Liukkonen, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)
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Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-204
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012


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