Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency

Guoxing Zheng, Shuang Zhang, Guixin Li, Mitchell Kenney, Holger Mühlenbernd, Thomas Zentgraf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1327 Citations (Scopus)
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Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures—so-called metasurfaces1,2,3,4—have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses5,6,7, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons4,8,9,10 and wave plate vortex beam generation1,11. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile12,13. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms14,15,16,17,18,19, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)308-312
Number of pages5
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2015


  • Metamaterials
  • Nanophotonics and plasmonics


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