The importance of memory processes for the formation and expression of conditioned food preferences and satieties has long been appreciated. Recently, based on the eating of multiple meals in amnesic patients, it has been suggested that information about a recent eating episode may be factored into decisions about how much to consume at the next meal. In support of this, it has been shown that enhancing memory for a recent meal, by cueing neurologically intact participants to recall items eaten at lunch, suppresses intake at a taste test later in the afternoon. This effect is specific to recalling food eaten that day, since asking participants to think about lunch consumed the previous day had no effect on intake. These studies suggest that memory for recent eating has a role to play in controlling everyday eating. However, the involvement of memory and cognition does not exclude learnt control by physiological after effects of the recent meal; indeed, this seems likely from the known functions of the hippocampal system that is damaged in amnesic patients. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.