The elastic modulus of the Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall reported in studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) is two orders of magnitude lower than that obtained using whole cell compression by micromanipulation. Using finite element modelling, it is shown that Hertz-Sneddon analysis cannot be applied to AFM indentation data for single layer core-shell structures. In addition, the Reissner solution for shallow homogeneous spheres is not appropriate for thick walls such as those of yeast cells. In order to explain yeast compression measurements at different length scales, a double layer wall model is presented considering a soft external layer composed of mannoproteins, and a stiff inner layer of β-glucan fibres and chitin. Under this model, previous AFM studies using sharp indenters provide reasonable estimates of the external layer elastic modulus, while micromanipulation provides the total stiffness of the cell wall. Data from both measurements are combined to estimate the mechanical properties of the inner stiff layer.
- Finite element modelling
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