This paper proposes a novel method to interpret the effect of anesthetic agents (sevoflurane) on the neural activity, by using recurrence quantification analysis of EEG data. First, we reduce the artefacts in the scalp EEG using a novel filter that combines wavelet transforms and empirical mode decomposition. Then, the determinism in the recurrence plot is calculated. It is found that the determinism increases gradually with increasing the concentration of sevoflurane. Finally, a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model is built to describe the relationship between the concentration of sevoflurane and the processed EEG measure ('determinism' of the recurrence plot). A test sample of nine patients shows the recurrence in EEG data may track the effect of the sevoflurane on the brain.