Material, immunological, and practical perspectives on eye drop formulation

Naomi Bennett, Holly R Chinnery, Laura Downie, Lisa J Hill, Liam Grover

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
458 Downloads (Pure)


Eye drops are the most common and inexpensive approach to topical ocular drug delivery. Eye drops offer a noninvasive treatment strategy; however, this can be detrimental to therapeutic efficacy when compared to invasive methods such as surgeries, implants, and injections. Improvements to the efficacy of the topical delivery of drugs to ocular tissues are currently being explored and much of this work centers on adjusting the formulation of the eye drops and prolonging the bioavailability of the therapeutic agent. This is often in preference to improving other patient‐focused or clinical factors. In this progress report, conventional, commercially available polymer eye drops are explored and the ability for current and future innovations to maintain the existing benefits of eye drops to the patient is assessed. The final materials and form of the drops (liquid, gel, or other) and the immunological implications for the user are explored. There is currently no consensus for how to most effectively improve the ocular retention and drug delivery capabilities of eye drops, but key issues are highlighted in the context of current methods under development, and potential questions and considerations for future innovations are raised.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1908476
Number of pages20
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number14
Early online date19 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2020


  • drug delivery
  • eye drops
  • hydrogels
  • polymers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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