Maritime moving target localization using passive GNSS-based multistatic radar

Hui Ma, Michail Antoniou*, Andrew G. Stove, Jon Winkel, Mikhail Cherniakov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
822 Downloads (Pure)


This paper examines the potential in extracting the instantaneous location of maritime moving targets using a passive multistatic radar with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) as illuminators of opportunity and a single receiver. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the localization of a moving target from a set of bistatic range measurements. The algorithm and its predicted accuracy are presented. The localization is achieved by what is essentially a multilateration technique, which can be applied while the transmitting platform is also in motion. The algorithms and the accuracy predictions, as a function of the number of transmitters, have been experimentally confirmed via a dedicated experimental campaign, where two different maritime targets were detected by up to 12 GNSS satellites belonging to different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo) simultaneously. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first results of their kind and on this scale not only for GNSS-based passive radar but also for multistatic radar in general.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4808-4819
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number8
Early online date19 Jun 2018
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018


  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based radar
  • multistatic radar
  • target localization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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