Management of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes

JAJH Critchley, HL Zhao, B Tomlinson, WYS Leung, Graham Thomas, JCN Chan, CS Cockram

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    12 Citations (Scopus)


    PURPOSE: To review evidence-based management of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. DATA SOURCES: A literature search (MEDLINE 1966 to 2000) was performed using the key word "diabetic nephropathy". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and expert review articles on diabetic nephropathy were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: Data and conclusions from the selected articles that provide solid evidence to the optimal management of diabetic nephropathy were extracted and interpreted in light of our clinical research experience with many thousands of Hong Kong Chinese patients. RESULTS: Hypertension, long diabetes duration, poor glycaemic control and central obesity are the most important risk factors. Microalbuminuria is a practical marker to predict overt nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Risk factor modification, renal function monitoring and combined therapies are the current integrated approaches to manage patients with diabetic kidney disease. Optimal glycaemic control is the mainstay of treatment but effective antihypertensive therapy is also key to delaying the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have important renoprotective actions independent of their blood pressure lowering actions. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Monitoring renal function and screening for microalbuminuria will allow the identification of patients with nephropathy at a very early stage for intervention. Tight glycaemic control and aggressive antihypertensive treatment as well as the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors should substantially delay the progression of nephropathy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)129-135
    Number of pages7
    JournalChinese Medical Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002


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