Low-flow mediated constriction: The yin to FMD's yang?

Ruth E. Humphreys, Daniel J. Green, N. Timothy Cable, Dick H.J. Thijssen, Ellen A. Dawson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Given the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), early detection is crucial. Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors relate to future CVD, the predictive value of these risk factors can be relatively limited. Contemporary scientific attention has focused on alternative direct measures of arterial function. Based on the ability of the endothelium to acutely dilate in response to an increase in flow, 'flow mediated dilation' (FMD) was introduced approximately 20 years ago and is now an established non-invasive index of endothelial function predictive of future cardiovascular events. Recently, 'low-flow mediated constriction' (L-FMC) has been proposed as a complementary addition to FMD. The technique is based on the constrictor response to decreased flow and is claimed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of FMD. The aim of this review is to examine literature pertaining to this novel technique and to provide insight into the potential use of L-FMC in future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-564
Number of pages8
JournalExpert review of cardiovascular therapy
Issue number5
Early online date18 Apr 2014
Publication statusPublished - May 2014


  • cardiovascular prognosis
  • cardiovascular risk
  • composite end point
  • endothelial function
  • flow-mediated dilation
  • low-flow-mediated constriction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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