Limiting prothrombin activation to meizothrombin is compatible with survival but significantly alters hemostasis in mice

Maureen Shaw, Keith Kombrinck, Kathryn McElhinney, David Sweet, Matthew Flick, Joseph Palumbo, Mei Cheng, Naomi Esmon, Charles Esmon, Alexander Brill, Denisa Wagner, Jay Degen, Eric Mullins

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6 Citations (Scopus)
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Thrombin-mediated proteolysis is central to hemostatic function but also plays a prominent role in multiple disease processes. The proteolytic conversion of fII to α-thrombin (fIIa) by the prothrombinase complex occurs through two parallel pathways: i) the inactive intermediate, prethrombin, or ii) the proteolytically active intermediate, meizothrombin (fIIaMZ). FIIaMZ has distinct catalytic properties relative to fIIa, including diminished fibrinogen cleavage and increased protein C activation. Thus, fII activation may differentially influence hemostasis and disease depending on the pathway of activation. To determine the in vivo physiologic and pathologic consequences of restricting thrombin generation to fIIaMZ, mutations were introduced into the endogenous fII gene resulting in expression of prothrombin carrying three amino acid substitutions (R157A, R268A, and K281A) to limit activation events to yield only fIIaMZ. Homozygous fIIMZ mice are viable, express fII levels comparable to fIIWT mice, and have reproductive success. Although in vitro studies revealed delayed generation of fIIaMZ enzyme activity, platelet aggregation by fIIMZ is similar to fIIWT. Consistent with prior analyses of human fIIaMZ, significant prolongation of clotting times was observed for fIIMZ plasma. Adult fIIMZ animals displayed significantly compromised hemostasis in tail bleeding assays, but did not demonstrate overt bleeding. More notably, fIIMZ mice had two significant phenotypic advantages over fIIWT animals: protection from occlusive thrombosis after arterial injury and markedly diminished metastatic potential in a setting of experimental tumor metastasis to the lung. Thus, these novel animals will provide a valuable tool to assess the role of both fIIa and fIIaMZ in vivo.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)721-731
Number of pages11
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2016


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