Levels of TGFβ1in gingival crevicular fluid during a 21 day experimental model of gingivitis

Helen Wright, Iain Chapple, John Matthews

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: TGFbeta1 is a multifunctional growth factor with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to determine levels of TGFbeta1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), serum and plasma in the early stages of gingival inflammation. DESIGN: A 21-day experimental model of gingivitis employing a split mouth design with a soft vinyl splint used to cover test teeth during brushing. SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers (mean age 21 years; five males and five females). METHODS: GCF and blood (with and without EDTA) was collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. GCF volumes were measured on a precalibrated Periotron 8000(TM). Clinical indices of gingival inflammation and plaque levels were obtained after GCF sampling. Normal brushing resumed after GCF collection on day 21 and final samples were collected on day 35. TGFbeta1 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined using enhanced chemiluminescent methods. RESULTS: Clinical indices and GCF volumes increased at test sites during the 21-day test period. Concentrations of TGFbeta1 and ALP in GCF (test and control), serum and plasma did not change throughout the study (P > 0.3). However, total amounts of TGFbeta1 (pg sample (-1)) and ALP (mu IU sample(-1)) in GCF increased at test sites and were significantly higher than baseline values at days 7, 14 and 21 (P <0.04). Control sites showed no variation in TGFbeta1 or ALP levels throughout the study period (P > 0.35). All parameters at test sites returned to control levels at day 35 (P > 0.3). CONCLUSION: The data indicate that GCF TGFbeta1 levels increase early in plaque-induced inflammation. Whether the biological consequence of this site-specific increase is pro- or anti-inflammatory in nature remains to be elucidated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-94
Number of pages7
JournalOral Diseases
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2003


  • gingival crevicular fluid
  • experimental gingivitis
  • TGF beta 1


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