Latent cytomegalovirus infection and previous capsular polysaccharide vaccination predict poor vaccine responses in older adults, independent of chronic kidney disease

Nadezhda Wall, Alexandra Godlee, Daniel Geh, Charlotte Jones, Sian Faustini, Ruth Harvey, Rebecca Penn, Dimitrios Chanouzas, Peter Nightingale, Matthew O'Shea, Alex Richter, Paul Moss, Adam Cunningham, Lorraine Harper

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Abstract

Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more prone to severe infection. Vaccination is a key strategy to reduce this risk. Some studies suggest vaccine efficacy may be reduced in patients with CKD, despite preserved maintenance of long-term responses to some pathogens and vaccines. Here, we investigated immune responses to 2 vaccines in patients with CKD to identify predictors of immunological responsiveness. Methods Individuals >65 years old, with or without nondialysis CKD (n = 36 and 29, respectively), were vaccinated with a nonadjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine (T-dependent) and Pneumovax23 (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide [PPV23], T-independent). Humoral responses were measured at baseline, day 28, and 6 months. Lymphocyte subset and plasma cell/blast analyses were performed using flow cytometry. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) serotyping was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Only modest responsiveness was observed to both vaccines, independent of CKD status (25% adequate response in controls vs. 12%–18% in the CKD group). Unexpectedly, previous immunization with PPV23 (median 10-year interval) and CMV seropositivity were associated with poor PPV23 responsiveness in both study groups (P < .001 and .003, respectively; multivariable linear regression model). Patients with CKD displayed expanded circulating populations of T helper 2 and regulatory T cells, which were unrelated to vaccine responses. Despite fewer circulating B cells, patients with CKD were able to mount a similar day 7 plasma cell/blast response to controls. Conclusion Patients with nondialysis CKD can respond similarly to vaccines as age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. CKD patients display an immune signature that is independent of vaccine responsiveness. Prior PPV23 immunization and CMV infection may influence responsiveness to vaccination.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberciab078
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume2021
Issue number00
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • vaccination
  • immunodeficiency
  • cytomegalovirus
  • adaptive immunity

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