Keyhole formation and thermal fluid flow-induced porosity during laser fusion welding in titanium alloys: experimental and modelling

Chinnapat Panwisawas, Bama Perumal, Mark Ward, Nathanael Turner, Richard Turner, Jeffery Brooks, Hector Basoalto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)
968 Downloads (Pure)


High energy-density beam welding, such as electron beam or laser welding, has found a number of industrial applications for clean, high-integrity welds. The deeply penetrating nature of the joints is enabled by the formation of metal vapour which creates a narrow fusion zone known as a “keyhole”. However the formation of the keyhole and the associated keyhole dynamics, when using a moving laser heat source, requires further research as they are not fully understood. Porosity, which is one of a number of process induced phenomena related to the thermal fluid dynamics, can form during beam welding processes. The presence of porosity within a welded structure, inherited from the fusion welding operation, degrades the mechanical properties of components during service such as fatigue life. In this study, a physics-based model for keyhole welding including heat transfer, fluid flow and interfacial interactions has been used to simulate keyhole and porosity formation during laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The modelling suggests that keyhole formation and the time taken to achieve keyhole penetration can be predicted, and it is important to consider the thermal fluid flow at the melting front as this dictates the evolution of the fusion zone. Processing induced porosity is significant when the fusion zone is only partially penetrating through the thickness of the material. The modelling results are compared with high speed camera imaging and measurements of porosity from welded samples using X-ray computed tomography, radiography and optical micrographs. These are used to provide a better understanding of the relationship between process parameters, component microstructure and weld integrity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-263
Number of pages13
JournalActa Materialia
Early online date28 Dec 2016
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


  • Keyhole formation
  • Thermal fluid flow
  • Processing-induced porosity
  • Laser fusion welding
  • Titanium alloys


Dive into the research topics of 'Keyhole formation and thermal fluid flow-induced porosity during laser fusion welding in titanium alloys: experimental and modelling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this