Pancreatic β-cells can secrete insulin via two pathways characterized as KATP channel-dependent and independent. The KATP channel-independent pathway is characterized by a rise in several potential metabolic signaling molecules, including the NADPH/NADP + ratio and α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), which belong to the αKG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, are known to regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα). In the current study, we assess the role of PHDs in vivo using the pharmacological inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) and generated β-cell specific knockout (KO) mice for all three isoforms of PHD (β-PHD1 KO, β-PHD2 KO, and β-PHD3 KO mice). DMOG inhibited in vivo insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge and inhibited the 1 st phase of insulin secretion but enhanced the second-phase of insulin secretion in isolated islets. None of the β-PHD KO mice showed any significant in vivo defects associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance except for β-PHD2 KO mice which had significantly increased plasma insulin during a glucose challenge. Islets from both β-PHD1 KO and β-PHD3 KO had elevated β-cell apoptosis and reduced β-cell mass. Isolated islets from β-PHD1 KO and β-PHD3 KO had impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated increases in the ATP/ADP and NADPH/NADP + ratio. All three PHD isoforms are expressed in β-cells, with PHD3 showing the most unique expression pattern. The lack of each PHD protein did not significantly impair in vivo glucose homeostasis. However, β-PHD1 KO and β-PHD3 KO mice had defective β-cell mass and islet insulin secretion, suggesting that these mice may be predisposed to developing diabetes.
- insulin release
- pancreatic β-cell