Investigation of injector coking effects on spray characteristic and engine performance in gasoline direct injection engines

Tawfik Badawy, Mohammadreza Anbari Attar, Peter Hutchins, Hongming Xu*, Jens Krueger Venus, Roger Cracknell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Spray and droplet characteristics of a coked injector were compared to those of a clean injector at the atmospheric conditions and investigated using high-speed imaging and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray 3D microtomography images were analysed to understand the physical characteristics of injector nozzle deposits. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) was utilized to obtain the elemental composition of the deposit. A single cylinder optical gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine was used to compare diffusion flames for each injector. In this study, the location and topography of the deposits demonstrated that they extensively formed in the external holes of the injector, and reduced in size and quantity through the internal holes. Elemental analysis of the deposits exhibited that carbon (C) and oxygen (O) were the predominant elemental components through both the internal and external holes of the injector. The coked injector exhibited higher penetration lengths, smaller plume angles, larger spray cone angles, higher mean droplet velocity and larger droplet size as compared to the clean injector. Images of the optical engine indicated strong diffusion flames around the coked injector tip. In-cylinder pressure measurements indicated that the coked injector produced lower in-cylinder pressures, implying lower combustion stability compared with the clean injector. This work was carried out to obtain a comprehensive study of injector coking effects on spray behaviour and engine performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-394
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date30 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018


  • Coked injector
  • Diffusion flame
  • GDI
  • SEM
  • Spray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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