Investigation into the effect on structure of oxoanion doping in Na2M(SO4)2·2H2O

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In this paper an investigation into the effect of transition metal ion and selenate/fluorophosphate doping on the structures of Na2M(SO4)2·2H2O (M=transition metal) materials is reported. In agreement with previous reports, the monoclinic (Kröhnkite) structure is adopted for M=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, while for the smallest first row divalent transition metal ion, M=Ni, the triclinic (Fairfieldite structure) is adopted. On selenate doping there is a changeover in structure from monoclinic to triclinic for M=Fe, Co, Cu, with the larger Fe2+ system requiring the highest level of selenate to complete the changeover. Thus the results suggest that the relative stability of the two structure types is influenced by the relative size of the transition metal: oxoanion group, with the triclinic structure favoured for small transition metals/large oxoanions.

The successful synthesis of fluorophosphate doped samples, Na2M(SO4)2−x(PO3F)x·2H2O was also obtained for M=Fe, Co, Cu, with the results showing a changeover in structure from monoclinic to triclinic for M=Co, Cu for very low levels (x=0.1) of fluorophosphate. In the case of M=Fe, the successful synthesis of fluorophosphates samples was achieved for x≤0.3, although no change in cell symmetry was observed. Rather in this particular case, the X-ray diffraction patterns showed evidence for selective peak broadening, attributed to local disorder as a result of the fluorophosphate group disrupting the H-bonding network. Overall the work highlights how isovalent doping can be exploited to alter the structures of Na2M(SO4)2·2H2O systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-111
JournalJournal of Solid State Chemistry
Issue numberPart 1
Early online date5 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Sodium ion
  • Sulfate
  • Selenate
  • Fluorophosphate
  • Crystal Structure


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