Intermediate temperature PEFC’s with Nafion® 211 membrane electrolytes: an experimental and numerical study

Oliver Fernihough*, Mohammed S. Ismail, Ahmad El‐kharouf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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This paper evaluates the performance of Nafion 211 at elevated temperatures up to 120 °C using an experimentally validated model. Increasing the fuel cell operating temperature could have many key benefits at the cell and system levels. However, current research excludes this due to issues with membrane durability. Modelling is used to investigate complex systems to gain further information that is challenging to obtain experimentally. Nafion 211 is shown to have some inter-esting characteristics at elevated temperatures previously unreported, the first of which is that the highest performance reported is at 100 °C and 100% relative humidity. The model was trained on the experimental data and then used to predict the behaviour in the membrane region to understand how the fuel cell performs at varying temperatures and pressures. The model showed that the best membrane performance comes from a 100 °C operating temperature, with much better performance yielded from a higher pressure of 3 bar.

Original languageEnglish
Article number430
Number of pages20
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), CDT in Fuel Cells and their Fuels, EP/L015749/1.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Polymer electrolyte fuel cell
  • proton exchange membrane
  • fuel cell modelling
  • nafion
  • Intermediate temperature
  • Intermediate Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (IT-PEFC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Filtration and Separation


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