Insomnia in the elderly.

P Montgomery, J Lilly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Up to 40% of adults have insomnia, with difficulty getting to sleep, early waking, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Other risk factors include psychological factors, stress, daytime napping, and hyperarousal. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug treatments for insomnia in elderly people? What are the effects of drug treatments for insomnia in elderly people? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS: We found 28 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzodiazepines (brotizolam, flurazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, nitrazepam, quazepam, temazepam, and triazolam), cognitive behavioural therapy, diphenhydramine, exercise programmes, timed exposure to bright light, zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Clinical Evidence
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2007


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