Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

Gareth Wynn-jones, Richard M. Shelton, Michael P. Hofmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
166 Downloads (Pure)


The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1799-1808
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B: Applied Biomaterials
Issue number8
Early online date8 Apr 2014
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2014


  • vertebroplasty
  • injectable bone cement
  • Portland cement
  • setting mechanism


Dive into the research topics of 'Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this