Induction of high frequency somatic embryos in cassava for crypreservation

Kenneth Danso, Brian Ford-Lloyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)


Methods for inducing high-frequency somatic embryos in cassava on cotyledons and 33 clonal accessions by the addition of supplementary copper sulphate to the induction medium were investigated. The addition of copper sulphate enhanced primary embryo induction and significantly increased secondary embryo production. All accessions from Latin America (CIAT) were embryogenically competent on medium supplemented with 8 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) plus 1 muM copper sulphate as were 15 of the 18 accessions from Africa. The percentage of calli producing somatic embryos ranged from 7.5% in M. Bra 12 to 100% in M. Col. 1505, while the number of embryos produced per callus ranged from 0.3 in M. Bra 383 to 13.5 in TEK. The frequency of embryo production was dependent on the concentration of copper sulphate. The number of primary embryos produced per callus was also comparatively higher in the medium supplemented with copper sulphate than in the controls. The optimal concentration of copper sulphate for number of embryos produced in most accessions was 5 muM, and at this concentration the number of embryos produced was double that of the controls. Copper sulphate also reduced the maturation time of somatic embryos to 25 days from embryo initiation. High levels of 2,4-D were detrimental to embryo production. Similarly, fragmented embryos incubated in the dark produced more embryos tan those incubated under light conditions. On the basis of these results, the use of cassava somatic embryo micropropagules for germplasm conservation and synthetic seed development seems to be a strong possibility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-232
Number of pages7
JournalPlant Cell Reports
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2002


  • dark incubation
  • copper sulphate
  • somatic embryo
  • embryogenic calli


Dive into the research topics of 'Induction of high frequency somatic embryos in cassava for crypreservation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this