Indoor PM2.5 characteristics and CO concentration in households using biomass fuel in Kigali, Rwanda

Telesphore Kabera, Suzanne Bartington, Clement Uwanyirigira, Pacifique Abimana, Francis Pope

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
176 Downloads (Pure)


This paper reports the first research investigation in urban Rwanda of indoor PM2.5 and CO levels associated with biomass fuel cooking activities. The study included a survey of household and cooking activity among 40 biomass fuel households in Nyarugenge District, Kigali, together with air quality monitoring for particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) within those 20 households in which cooking was performed exclusively indoors. Pollutant concentrations were measured at one-minute intervals, using the IQ Air Visual Pro sensor (PM2.5) and electrochemical COA1 (CO) detector adapter devices, respectively. In the majority of households (90%, n = 18) in which monitoring was performed, mean pollutant concentrations were in excess of WHO Air Quality (WHO-AQ) Standards with 24-h values of 93 µgm3 and 35.1 ppm for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Efforts are required to change household energy policies in favour of cleaner fuel sources and develop effective structural ventilation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)998-1011
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Studies
Issue number6
Early online date27 Feb 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Feb 2020


  • PM2.5
  • CO
  • traditional stoves
  • biomass
  • Rwanda
  • PM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computers in Earth Sciences
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Ecology


Dive into the research topics of 'Indoor PM2.5 characteristics and CO concentration in households using biomass fuel in Kigali, Rwanda'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this