BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have worse outcomes after stroke. However, the burden of acute kidney injury after stroke has not been extensively investigated.
METHODS: We used MEDLINE and Embase to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that provided data on the risk of AKI and outcomes in adults after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Pooled incidence was examined using the Stuart-Ord method in a DerSimonian-Laird model. Pooled Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for outcomes using a random effects model. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017064588).
RESULTS: Eight studies were included, five from the United States, representing 99.9% of included patients. Three studies used established acute kidney injury criteria based on creatinine values to define acute kidney injury and five used International Classification of Diseases coding definitions. Overall pooled incidence was 9.61% (95% confidence interval 8.33-10.98). Incidence for studies using creatinine definitions was 19.51% (95% confidence interval 12.75-27.32%) and for studies using coding definitions 4.63% (95% confidence interval 3.65-5.72%). Heterogeneity was high throughout. Mortality in stroke patients who sustained acute kidney injury was increased (Odds Ratio 2.45; 95% confidence interval 1.47-4.10). Three studies reported risk factors for acute kidney injury. There was sparse information on other outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in stroke patients who develop acute kidney injury is significantly increased. However the reported incidence of AKI after stroke varies widely and is underestimated using coding definitions. Larger international studies are required to identify potentially preventable factors to reduce acute kidney injury after stroke and improve outcomes.
- Acute kidney injury
- Cerebrovascular disease