In vitro models to evaluate ingestible devices: present status and current trends

Connor O'farrell, Konstantinos Stamatopoulos, Mark Simmons, Hannah Batchelor

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Orally ingestible medical devices offer significant opportunity in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. Their development necessitates the use of models that simulate the gastrointestinal environment on both a macro and micro scale. An evolution in scientific technology has enabled a wide range of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models to be developed that replicate the gastrointestinal tract. This review describes the landscape of the existing range of in vitro tools that are available to characterize ingestible devices. Models are presented with details on their benefits and limitations with regards to the evaluation of ingestible devices and examples of their use in the evaluation of such devices is presented where available. The multitude of models available provides a suite of tools that can be used in the evaluation of ingestible devices that should be selected on the functionality of the device and the mechanism of its function.
Original languageEnglish
Article number113924
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Early online date12 Aug 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Aug 2021


  • In vitro model
  • colon
  • macroenvironment
  • microenvironment
  • organ-on-a-chip
  • organoid
  • small intestine
  • stomach


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